Explore the advantages of Japan as a Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) jurisdiction.


Updated 19th February 2024*

This post is part of our research on DAO-friendly global jurisdictions.

LLC-type DAO after the revision in Japanese Financial Instruments and Exchange Act (FIEA)

Additional References:

Overview of Jurisdiction:

The new ordinance revisions in Japan allow the establishment of DAOs as LLCs, streamlining the process by classifying tokenized LLC membership rights as "Paragraph II Securities," which exempts them from stringent regulations. This development follows the "Web3 White Paper" recommendations to address legal ambiguities around DAOs, aiming to bolster their use in various sectors and contribute to economic and community revitalization. These changes, prompted by the need for a clear legal framework for DAOs, introduce a significant shift towards recognizing and integrating DAOs within Japan's legal and economic landscape.

The Japanese Companies Act provides a detailed legal framework for Limited Liability Companies (LLCs), aiming to regulate their establishment, management, and dissolution within Japan's robust legal system. This framework is designed to support innovation, ensure compliance with regulatory standards, and offer a secure environment for the operation and management of LLCs. By delineating clear guidelines for creating, governance, and terminating LLCs, the Act emphasizes transparency, ethical management practices, and protecting stakeholders' interests, positioning Japan as a conducive and attractive environment for business ventures and investments.

  1. Establishment: Prospective LLCs must register with the relevant legal authorities, providing necessary documents such as the company's articles of incorporation, a list of members, and information on capital contributions.
  2. Legal Status and Name: An LLC is recognized as a legal entity upon registration. The name must include indicators of its limited liability status to ensure clarity and compliance.
  3. Management: LLCs are managed by their members or designated managers, with the articles of incorporation outlining governance structures and operational procedures, including the roles and responsibilities of all involved parties.
  4. Standards of Conduct: The Act stipulates that LLCs operate under principles of good faith, requiring them to conduct business ethically and in the best interests of all stakeholders.
  5. Voting Rights: Members' voting rights are often proportional to their capital contributions, allowing for equitable decision-making processes within the LLC.
  6. Dissolution: The Act provides various grounds for dissolution, including expiration of the LLC's term, achievement of its purpose, or a decision made by the members, ensuring a clear process for winding up.
  7. Legal Protections: LLC members enjoy limited liability, protecting their personal assets from the company's debts and obligations and fostering a secure environment for investment.
  8. Foreign DLT Foundations: The Act accommodates foreign LLCs wishing to operate in Japan, outlining specific requirements for registration and compliance to integrate seamlessly into the Japanese business ecosystem.

Benefits and Challenges:


  1. Legal Structure and Protection: Japan’s Companies Act offers LLCs a solid legal foundation, promoting investor confidence and stakeholder security.
  2. Innovation and Growth: The Act supports business innovation, providing a flexible structure that encourages entrepreneurial activities within a regulated framework.
  3. Operational Flexibility: LLCs enjoy flexibility in management and decision-making processes, capable of adapting to diverse business needs and market demands.
  4. Global Participation: Japan’s legal framework accommodates foreign LLCs, facilitating international business integration and positioning Japan as an attractive investment destination.
  5. Limited Liability Advantage: Members benefit from limited liability, protecting personal assets against business liabilities and risks.
  6. Tax Efficiency: LLCs may have access to beneficial tax treatments, enhancing profitability and financial planning.


  1. Regulatory Navigation: The comprehensive and stringent regulations may pose challenges for businesses unfamiliar with Japan’s legal environment.
  2. Cultural and Language Barriers: International entities may face difficulties in overcoming language barriers and understanding local business etiquette.
  3. Compliance Costs: Ensuring compliance with legal, financial, and operational regulations can be costly, particularly for startups and small businesses.
  4. Technological Adaptation: Staying abreast of technological advancements and integrating them into traditional business models while remaining compliant can be challenging.
  5. Market Competition: The competitive business environment in Japan demands high standards of innovation and quality, posing challenges for new entrants.
  6. Intellectual Property Protection: Navigating intellectual property laws to protect innovations and business ideas requires diligence and legal expertise.

Case Studies:

  • No case study as yet

*Please note that the information in this post is for informational purposes only. It should not be construed as legal, tax, investment or other advice.*